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Bibliography Database of living/fossil sharks, rays and chimaeras

(Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii, Holocephali)


published by


in cooperation with

Shark-References is an online database that contains scientific bibliography on recent and fossil sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras (cartilaginous fishes, Chondrichthyes). The database started in June 2009 with a data inventory of about 1,000 scientific quotations. Since then, it has expanded continuously, and today holds more than 22,000 data inputs. At the beginning, the concept intended a scientific bibliography only, but in the meantime the provided information has also extended to other related topics.

In addition to standard biographical information such as author, year of publication, title, location, DOI, abstract, the bibliography also offers keywords like  “time”, “place”, “names of species” and “synonyms”.

 List of authors:
In this list you can browse authors`names.

 Type data base:
Information on particular types of first descriptions (holotypes, paratypes, etc.) either originates from first descriptions directly or comes from the type database (Menu: Type database). This database lists all types with more than 6,200 entries and links to the collection locations of specimens. More information is provided by clicking  the info symbol. Further, species information and site of first record of more than 3,000 types are shown in a Google-map.

 Species descriptions:
The species description provides the user with all available information on a particular species. Along with first description data (as for synonyms) relevant type information is also included. The linked type data base holds more than 6,200 types entries with detailed information such as age, sex, place of first record,geographic coordinates and parasites.

Many thanks to the following authors for writing species descriptions (number of species description in brackets):
Clinton Duffy (1), Simon Weigmann (1)


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In this two lists you will find information about parasites of Elasmobranchs 


Digital versions of first descriptions:
The menu item “bibliography – first description” contains numerous digitalized first descriptions of fossil species. Among others, historic publications are featured (e.g. Louis Agassiz, Recherches sur les poissons fossiles. Volume 3, 1843).

How you can help:
Shark-References would kindly like to ask you for your contribution to this project. Users can participate in many ways:

  • Please send us missing references.
  • Send us your publications that are not incorporated so far (which is indicated by the missing info symbol at the quotation).
  • Pictures of sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras are needed. Authors will be credited.
  • Should you notice mistakes, encounter incomplete links, or or experience any access problems, please let us know.
  • You have information for the monthly newsletter? Please send an email.
  • Subscribe to our monthly The Roots of Adele, or visit us on facebook regularly, and tell your friends.

Partner Organisations (complete list of partners):




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(Pollerspöck, J. & Straube, N. 2021, www.shark-references.com, World Wide Web electronic publication, Version 2021)